Monday, March 16, 2020

Juan Sebastián Elcano, Ferdinand Magellans Replacement

Juan Sebastin Elcano, Ferdinand Magellan's Replacement Juan Sebastin Elcano (1487–August 4, 1526) was a Spanish (Basque) sailor, navigator, and explorer best remembered for leading the second half of the first round-the-world navigation, having taken over after the death of Ferdinand Magellan. Upon his return to Spain, the King presented him with a coat of arms that contained a globe and the phrase: â€Å"You Went Around Me First.† Fast Facts: Juan Sebastian Elcano Known For: Leading the second half of Ferdinand Magellans first round-the-world navigation after Magellan diedBorn: 1487 in Guetaria, a fishing village in Gipuzkoa, SpainParents: Domingo Sebastian de Elcano and Dona Catalina del PuertoDied: August 4, 1526 at sea (Pacific Ocean)Spouse: NoneChildren: A son Domingo del Cano by Mari Hernandez de Hernialde and an unnamed daughter by Maria de Vidaurreta of Valladolid Early Life Juan Sebastin Elcano (in Basque; the Spanish spelling of his name is written as del Cano) was born in 1487 in Guetaria, a fishing village in the Guipuzcoa province of Spain. He was the eldest of nine children of Domingo Sebastian de Elcano and Dona Catalina del Puerto. He was related to the Gaiza de Arzaus and Ibarrola families, who held important positions in the Casa de Contratacion in Seville, the Spanish crowns agency for the Spanish empire, a thin but later useful family connection. Elcano and his brothers became seafarers, learning navigation by ferrying contraband goods to French ports. He was an adventurer, fighting with the Spanish Army in Algiers and Italy before settling down as captain/owner of a merchant ship. As a young man, however, he led a prodigal and wayward life and often had more debts than money to pay them. Italian companies demanded that he surrender his ship to cover his debts, but he later found he had broken Spanish law by doing so and had to ask the king for a pardon. Young King Charles V agreed, but on the condition that the skilled sailor and navigator (with good connections) serve with an expedition the king was funding: the search for a new route to the Spice Islands, led by Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan. The Magellan Expedition Elcano was given the position of ship’s master on board the Concepcià ³n, one of five ships making up the fleet. Magellan believed that the globe was smaller than it actually is and that a shortcut to the Spice Islands (now known as the Maluku Islands in present-day Indonesia) was possible by going through the New World. Spices such as cinnamon and cloves were immensely valuable in Europe at the time and a shorter route would be worth a fortune to whoever found it. The fleet set sail in September 1519 and made its way to Brazil, avoiding Portuguese settlements due to hostilities between the Spanish and Portuguese. As the fleet made its way south along the coast of South America looking for a passage west, Magellan decided to call a halt in the sheltered bay of San Julin because he feared continuing on in bad weather. Left idle, the men began to talk of mutiny and returning to Spain. Elcano was a willing participant and had by then assumed command of the ship San Antonio. At one point, Magellan ordered his flagship to fire on the San Antonio. In the end, Magellan put down the mutiny and had many of the leaders killed or marooned. Elcano and others were pardoned, but not until after a period of forced labor on the mainland. To the Pacific Around this time, Magellan lost two ships: the San Antonio returned to Spain (without permission) and the Santiago sank, although all of the sailors were rescued. By this time, Elcano was captain of the Concepcià ³n, a decision by Magellan that probably had much to do with the fact that the other experienced ships captains had been executed or marooned after the mutiny or had gone back to Spain with the San Antonio. In October–November 1520, the fleet explored the islands and waterways at the southern tip of South America, eventually finding a passage through what is known today as the Strait of Magellan. According to Magellan’s calculations, the Spice Islands should have only been a few days of sailing away. He was badly mistaken: his ships took four months to cross the South Pacific. Conditions were miserable on board and several men died before the fleet reached Guam and the Marianas Islands and were able to resupply. Continuing westward, they reached the present-day Philippines in early 1521. Magellan found he could communicate with the natives through one of his men, who spoke Malay: they had reached the eastern edge of the world known to Europe. Death of Magellan In the Philippines, Magellan befriended the King of Zzubu, who was eventually baptized with the name of â€Å"Don Carlos.† Unfortunately, Don Carlos convinced Magellan to attack a rival chieftain for him, and Magellan was one of several Europeans killed in the ensuing battle. Magellan was succeeded by Duarte Barbosa and Juan Serrao, but both were treacherously killed by â€Å"Don Carlos† within a few days. Elcano was now second in command of the Victoria, under Juan Carvalho. Low on men, they decided to scuttle the Concepcià ³n and head back to Spain in the two remaining ships: the Trinidad and the Victoria. Return to Spain Heading across the Indian Ocean, the two ships made a stop in Borneo before finding themselves at the Spice Islands, their original goal. Packed with valuable spices, the ships set out again. About this time, Elcano replaced Carvalho as captain of the Victoria. The Trinidad soon had to return to the Spice Islands, however, as it was leaking badly and eventually sank. Many of the Trinidad’s sailors were captured by the Portuguese, although a handful managed to find their way to India and from there back to Spain. The Victoria sailed on cautiously, as they had gotten word that a Portuguese fleet was looking for them. Miraculously evading the Portuguese, Elcano sailed the Victoria back into Spain on September 6, 1522. By then, the ship was crewed by only 22 men: 18 European survivors of the voyage and four Asians they had picked up en route. The rest had died, deserted or, in some cases, been left behind as unworthy of sharing in the spoils of the rich cargo of spices. The King of Spain received Elcano and granted him a coat of arms bearing a globe and the Latin phrase Primus circumdedisti me, or â€Å"You Went Around Me First.† Death and Legacy In 1525, Elcano was picked to be the chief navigator for a new expedition led by the Spanish nobleman Garcà ­a Jofre de Loaà ­sa, who intended to retrace Magellan’s route and establish a permanent colony in the Spice Islands. The expedition was a fiasco: of seven ships, only one made it to the Spice Islands, and most of the leaders, including Elcano, perished of malnutrition during the arduous Pacific crossing. Elcano wrote a last will and testament, leaving money to his two illegitimate children and their mothers back in Spain, and died on August 4, 1526. Because of his elevation to noble status upon his return from the Magellan expedition, Elcano’s descendants continued to hold the title of Marquis for some time after his death. As for Elcano himself, he has unfortunately been mostly forgotten by history, as Magellan still gets all the credit for the first circumnavigation of the globe. Elcano, although well-known to historians of the Age of Exploration (or Age of Discovery), is little more than a trivia question to most, although there is a statue of him in his hometown of Getaria, Spain and the Spanish Navy once named a ship after him. Sources Fernandez de Navarrete, Eustaquio. Historia De Juan Sebastian Del Cano. Nicholas de Soraluce y Zubizarreta, 1872. Mariciano, R. De Borja. Basques in the Philippines. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 2005. Sebastian del Cano, Juan. Original of the Testament of Juan Sebastian Del Cano Made on Board the Ship, Victoria, One of the Ships of Comendador Garcia De Loaysa on Its Way to the South Sea. The Philippines under Spain; a Compilation and Translation of Original Documents. Book 1 (1518-1565): The Voyages of Discovery. Eds. Benitez Licuanan, Virginia and Josà © Llavador Mira. Manila: National Trust for Historical and Cultural Preservation of the Philippines, 1526 (1990). Thomas, Hugh. Rivers of Gold: The Rise of the Spanish Empire, from Columbus to Magellan. 1st edition, Random House, June 1, 2004.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Arnolds Works and Hidden Radicalism In Them

Arnold's Works and Hidden Radicalism In Them Matthew Arnold was born in 1822 in Laleham-on-Thames in Middlesex County, England. Due to some temporary childhood leg braces, (Machann, 1) and a competitiveness within the large family of nine (Culler xxi) young Matthew earned the nickname Crabby. His disposition was described as active, but since his athletic pursuits were somewhat hindered by this correction of a bent leg (Machann 1), intellectual pursuits became more accessible to him. This may have led him to a literary career, but both his parents were literary (his mother wrote occasional verse and kept a journal, Machann 1) and scholarly, also, and this may have been what helped to accomplish the same aim. His father, Thomas Arnold, was a celebrated educator and headmaster of Rugby School, to which Matthew matriculated. He later attended Oxford, and, after a personal secretary-ship to Lord Lansdowne (Machann, 19) he was appointed Inspector of Schools. He spent most of his adult life traveling around England and sometimes the continent observing and reporting on the state of public schools, and his prose on education and social issues continues to be examined today (Machann xi). He also held the Chair of Poetry at Oxford for ten years, and wrote extensive literary criticism (Culler, xxii). Arnold is probably best known today for this passage of his honeymoon-written (Machann, 31) Dover Beach, the only poem of Arnolds which may be called very famous. This is the last stanza of the poem. Ah, love, let us be true To one another! For the world, which seems To lie before us like a land of dreams, So various, so beautiful, so new, Hath really neither joy, nor love, nor light, Nor certitude, nor peace, nor help for pain; And we are here a on a darkling plain Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight, Where ignorant armies clash by night. (Strand and Boland, 185-186) This poem, a love poem doubtless, in the end directs us to a love beyond all earthly love, and a rejection of the world as a place of illusions. Religion was the central idea of Arnolds life, but he thought that poetry was an excellent, and, in fact, vital part of the new society, which he thought absolutely necessary to understanding the spiritual component of life. He wrote in his The Study of Poetry, But for poetry the idea is everything; the rest is a world of illusion, of divine illusion. Poetry attaches its emotion to the idea; the idea is the fact. The strongest part of our religion to-day is its unconscious poetry. (463), and We should conceive of [poetry] as capable of higher uses, and called to higher destinies, than those which in general men have assigned to it hitherto. More and more mankind will discover that we have to turn to poetry to interpret life for us, to console us, and to sustain us. (464). So this poet, who was actually not primarily a professional poet for a large part of his life, but instead accomplished all of his great poetic feats during his time off from his employment inspecting schools (Britannica article), argued that poetry was of paramount importance to everyone, and necessary for spiritual health. What kind of poetry would a man like this write? He naturally excelled at lyric and elegy (Schmidt 486,) but he really thought the truly impersonal epics the classic virtues of unity, impersonality, universality, and architectonic power and upon the value of the classical masterpieces (Britannica article) were the highest form and the best model of poetry. He wrote some long dramatic and narrative poems, such as Empedocles on Etna Sohrab and Rustum, and Tristram and Iseult, with classical and legendary themes. He had a classical education at Rugby and Oxford, but distanced himself from the classics (though he thought of them as being the bastion of sanity (Schm idt 486,) but he was also the first Poetry chair at Oxford to deliver his lectures in English instead of Latin (Culler, xxii)). He gave a lecture On Translating Homer, but in it refused to translate it himself, and instead provided criticism on the latest two translations. He was very religious, but also was critical of the established religions of his Victorian time, and wrote most of what now passes with us for religion and philosophy will be replaced by poetry (Harmon, 464,) which must have been a somewhat shocking claim in his time coming from a man employed in more than one capacity to mold young minds. He was a product of his time, but had deep personal reservations about the state of his world. His poetry has been criticized, even his greatest poems, as being an allegory of the state of his own mind. (Culler, xvii). His talents appear to have lain in the personal poems the lyric and the elegy, such as Dover Beach, but his ambitions perhaps lay in what he considered a higher form of poetry the epic. Empedocles on Etna, for example, doesnt have the immediacy and the musicality of Dover Beach or even his famous (at the time) sonnet Shakespeare: Others abide our question. Thou art free. We ask and ask Thou smilest and art still, Out-topping knowledge. For the loftiest hill, Who to the stars uncrown his majesty, Planting his steadfast footsteps in the sea, Making the heaven of heavens his dwelling-place, Spares but the cloudy border of his base To the foild searching of mortality; And thou, who didst the stars and sunbeams know, Self-schoold, self-scannd, self-honourd, self-secure, Didst tread on earth unguessd at. Better so! All pains the immortal spirit must endure, All weakness which impairs, all griefs which bow, Find their sole speech in that victorious brow. (Culler 26) This poem has the fourteen lines of a sonnet, and the final rhyming couplet, but has additional stanza breaks that Shakespeares sonnets did not. Perhaps in this kind of laudatory poetry (perhaps imitating the original form of classical elegies, which were replete with flatteries) Arnold didnt think he was worthy to directly imitate his subjects sonnet form. This example of Arnolds poetry shows his mastery of language even awkward constructions like Self-schoold, self-scannd, self-honord, self-secure trip off the tongue and make sense without seeming simplistic. He uses some of Shakespeares language (didst, thou,) but doesnt make this sound like a piece of Elizabethan poetry, either. He brings the reader to think about what in Shakespeare he or she might have read that is out-topping knowledge. The comparison in the second stanza is definitely classical in origin (perhaps the Colossus of Rhodes, or the battles of the Titans and the gods in Greek mythology), showing Shakespeare metaph orically large enough to stand on earth and live in heaven. We humans on earth can only contemplate his lower parts, his base (Machann says that it is an image of Shakespeare as a lofty mountain, 15.) It is a good way of capturing the wonder and mystery of great art. We ask and ask, as Arnold says, be we dont fully understand a masterpiece or how its creator made it. Also, its just self-conscious enough to show Arnolds modesty about his own talent. He doesnt put himself in the class with Shakespeare, or with Homer or writers of the other classical epics. He hasnt quite reconciled himself, I think, to the idea that the future of poetry lay in the personal, which was a kind of poetry he himself was able to write very well. Arnolds poetry, especially his lyrics and elegies, are often interesting and thought-provoking. His mastery of English is complete, and his diction shows his full Latin and Greek education, with the deep understanding of the origin of Latinate English words. But he does not shy away from good Anglo-Saxon words, either, like Shakespeare does not, and is fully able to use both high-flown language (such as in Empedocles on Etna, These rumblings are not Typhos groans, I know!/These angry smoke-bursts/Are not the passionate breath/Of the mountain-crushd, tortured, intractable Titan king, Culler 65) and very simple, lovely images, such as stars and sunbeams know. His elegy Memorial Verses to Wordsworth is considered one of the best elegies in English. (Schmidt, 485) Arnold was a product of his time the old Victorian world of religion and classical education but he also anticipated the new modern focus on self-choice and the value placed on the personal. He was a poetic talent with a flair for thoughtful poems, with the ability to create beautiful and lasting images. Works cited: Machann, C. Matthew Arnold: A Literary Life, New York: St Martins Press, 1998 Arnold, Matthew. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 8 Oct. 2006 Culler, A. D., Ed., Poetry and Criticism of Matthew Arnold, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1961. Strand, M., and Boland, E., Eds., The Making of a Poem, New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2000 Harmon, W. Ed., Classic Writings on Poetry, New York: Columbia University Press, 2003. Schmidt, M. The Lives of the Poets, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999

Thursday, February 13, 2020

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ASBESTOS FIBRE Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ASBESTOS FIBRE - Essay Example The respiratory system is the primary portal of entry for asbestos into the human body. Therefore, like as it is relevant to understand the applicability of techniques and selected instrumentation for analysis of environmental samples, it is equally important in determination of asbestos content from biological samples. Based on its on its fibrous morphology, asbestos is recognized as being a pathogenically active dust. Once inhaled, asbestos has continuous influences on cellular, biochemical, and molecular events in the human body. These complementary stimuli in synergy with the fibrous morphology of asbestos can result in irreversible cellular damage and in some cases the development of tumors. Various countries have sought to deal with asbestos and public health through regulatory guidance documents. This is necessary since asbestos mixtures are frequently used in industry, particularly chrysotile with either amosite or crocidolite. Moreover, exposures to "contaminant" noncommerci al amphiboles are common in miners and millers of chrysotile, talc, and vermiculite in some geographical locations. Therefore, there has been an acknowledged risk when the person is subjected to the exposure of asbestos, and these risks are health risks to create potential health problems even years after the exposure ceases. To prohibit these there are regulations from different authorities, which ideally would ascertain safety by eliminating and minimizing risks for the workers. These regulations should be guided by this risk and risk assessment approach. In this critical review, an assessment of different regulations will be done to examine how far these regulations have been guided by the concept of risk to control occupational exposure of asbestos (Bartrip, 2004, 72-76). Review: There is a perceived need for this critical review for various reasons. Practically, exposure to asbestos is very difficult to characterize. Moreover, there is a continued debate since there is an important confounding factor to determine the aetiology of any particular pathology. A strict separation of minerals goes beyond "asbestos" but involves two separate classes of the amphiboles, which collectively make up a great percentage of the earth's crust. The amphiboles occur in both forms and are not fibrous and do not look like asbestos, although they are basically asbestos. For those that are not fibrous and termed nonasbestiform, the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ruled in 1992 that "available evidence supports a conclusion that exposure to nonasbestiform cleavage fragments is not likely to produce a significant risk of developing asbestos-related disease" (OSHA, 1992) Similar problem has been reported from the British areas, but from the point of view of causation of the disease, this appears immaterial which form of asbestos has caused the disease. The grouping of the three commercial asbestos minerals is usually supplemented by the addition of the three "noncommercial" asbestiform amphiboles tremolite, actinolite, and

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Crucial role of women in Death of a Salesman by Artur Miller Research Paper

Crucial role of women in Death of a Salesman by Artur Miller - Research Paper Example Contrary to other women characters who live for money and personal benefits, Linda is a boss to her family. Linda takes the part of an instructor who guides the entire family with timely intervention. Even though the sons refuse to obey their father, they support their mother and recognize that she is an important part of their future and to the end of their lives. Linda is a devoted and conservative wife. She exudes love and sympathizes with her husband. The play opens with Willy cancelling his business trip abruptly and returns home in a noticeably tense state. Instead of questioning him, Linda calmly asks him what led to his return and offers him a sandwich and cheese from the refrigerator and goes back to bed without worrying about anything (Miller, 11). She knows that the cause of his malady is deep rooted and that he is facing serious issues. Instead of dwelling on his mental derangement and a state of worsening health, she goes on to speculate on the vehicle’s condition by informing her husband that maybe the mechanic had not mend the steering wheel or that Willy ought to change his spectacles to assist him in seeing the road clearly. She advises her husband to request his employer to retain him at the local office, that he was better off in New York rather than in New England as he cannot pain of long distance travelling at his age. Linda is loved by Willy. The moments when Willy reveals his devotion to his wife are persuasive in the play. Even though Willy turns away from the right norms, is lying and full of delusion, Linda never leaves his side and never punishes him for his sins. A self-sacrificing character due to remarkable forgiveness, Linda strengthens the bond between the family members. She is aware of her husbands’ misgivings: that he is secretly borrowing cash from the neighbor Charley so as to manage bills, knows that Willy could possibly be having an affair, is aware of the rubber hose that is hidden behind the heater but she puts all these aside. She wants to protect her husband from himself and from the rest of the world. This is because her husband has attempted to take his own life several times before. She is afraid that he may try to asphyxiate himself with the rubber hose. When Willy realizes this, he also strengthens his love for her and reaffirms his need for her in his life. Willy says â€Å"You’re the best there is, Linda, you’re a pal, and you know that on the road I would want to grab you sometimes and just kiss the life out of you† (Miller 37-38). Linda is kind to her sons. She speaks in defense of Biff to her husband when she says that â€Å"†¦it is natural for young people to seek company outside home†. Parents should gladly let off their mature sons and not to try to possess them. She says that it requires a considerable amount of time for a young man to settle down. Biff is moved by her kindness. He often calls her ‘pal’. Happy on the other hand looks at her as an ideal woman. He says that he is looking for a woman of his mother’s character and ‘resistance’ to marry. Happy appears to be searching for a mother –figure or surrogate mother (Miller 37-38). Linda does not hesitate to admonish her sons when they misbehave. She frankly tells Biff that he should not be like a bird coming to the garden in spring and deserting it in winter. She stresses the need for Biff to support his father in his old age. She emphasizes that he should either respect his father or stay away from home

Friday, January 24, 2020

Letter to President Coolidge :: essays research papers

President Coolidge:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Although some people believe that we, as a country, don’t have enough room for all these hard working immigrants, there comes a time when we need to realize the real basis of this country. We are all immigrants, in our own way, some of us may have been born here, but we do not all come from here. We all have ancestors that come from somewhere in Europe, or somewhere else. No one is a natural citizen except perhaps the Native Americans.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  To not grant someone entrance into our great nation is not only unethical, and immoral, but also unconstitutional. Everyone deserves his or her fair chance. The real questions when talking about the Immigration Act is, do we take the risk, do we let these people into our country and let them become free, or do we just shoot them down and tell them that they have to live there lives with religious persecution.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  If we do not let theses people in the America, the great nation, than we are in a way not letting people become free. We are preventing people from living the lives they want to live. Most of all we are feeding communism, and foreign army’s with people that want to live in the Americas but we wont let them. Think of all the people that would come and live in America, the United States of America, The Land of The Free, and join our Army, our Air Force, our Navy, and our Marine Core. Talk about one great nation. Think of all the farm hands, all the people striving to make a living by helping in anyway they can.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When it comes time to make a decision, I hope that you consider these factors. And see how great of a nation we may become with these immigrants that just want a chance.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Health care challenges Essay

Our country is set to face a new way of managing health which could potentially change the environment on how nurses deliver care. As our nation prepares for the implementation of Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, nursing as a healing profession has to be open to what the future of health management holds. The goal is to have all registered nurses reach a high level of understanding and acquire tools necessary to provide the best possible way at a low cost. It is both moral and professional obligation of our leaders to ensure that highly competent and well trained nurses are available throughout this transition. To achieve this goal, nurse educators are the key players to train both novice and seasoned nurses to the change based on the new policies and evidence-based research. However, our Nurse Educators are overwhelmed with their current workload hence causing faculty shortage in the country. A recent study published on 2011 aimed to explore the relation of nursing faculty shortage to their workload, determine if there are evidences that the faculty workload is not equitable and the implication/effect to the nursing research and nursing academic. According to this study, there are multiple factors that influence the nursing faculty shortage such as lack of interest from the nurses to try academic careers, time spends to clinical practice defers pursuance into academic positions, low salaries, high educational costs, nursing education dissatisfaction and most importantly low institutional funding for additional nurse educator positions. Nancy Falk stated in her article that â€Å"despite current critical shortage and growing demand for nurses and nurse educators, federal funding falls far short of addressing these healthcare workforce challenges. Workforce projections suggest that the US will face a shortage of 285,000 nurses by 2015 and 500, 000 by 2025.† (Mason, Leavitt & Chaffee, 2012, p 58). Also, American Association Colleges of Nursing reported on 2011-2012, that nursing schools turned away 75,587 applicants who are qualified for baccalaureate and graduate nursing programs because of inadequate nursing faculty including clinical preceptors. These challenges ultimately impact the future of patient care if not addressed. Faculty leaders must work in partnership to create a strategy that will help prevent further faculty shortage by focusing on balanced faculty workload to avoid burnout. This article emphasized on the continuous support by government officials especially adequate funding to nursing education. AACN is allocating its resources to protect federal funding for academic development programs, identify strategies to prevent nursing educator shortage. Additional solution is to create a mentorship program for nurse faculty. This strategy was confirmed by various literature and studies to promote nursing faculty recruitment and retention. Mentorship brings encouragement and direction to clinical educators who are new to the role and prevent burnout. Health care system will be lost without nurses in our society. Statistic shows that there are currently 2.9 million nurses in the United States but nurses with special skills such as in education is extremely needed. Nurse Educators, in some ways, affect the lives of everyone. It is through this role where highly competent, compassionate healers such as nurses are produced. â€Å"The future of the nursing profession depends on a steady supply of nurses to provide the quality care to patients† (Cowen & Moorhead, 2011, p. 60)

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Juvenile Justice System - 1739 Words

The juvenile justice system is a foundation in society that is granted certain powers and responsibilities. It faces several different tasks, among the most important is maintaining order and preserving constitutional rights. When a juvenile is arrested and charged with committing a crime there are many different factors that will come in to play during the course of his arrest, trial, conviction, sentencing, and rehabilitation process. This paper examines the Juvenile Justice System’s court process in the State of New Jersey and the State of California. The term juvenile delinquent was established so that young lawbreakers could avoid being classified in legal records as criminals. â€Å"The laws were designed to provide treatment, rather†¦show more content†¦Depending on the case there is usually a pretrial period where the legal representation of the child and the state confer and try to come to some sort of settlement. The pretrial period is critical for any juvenile awaiting sentencing and conviction. Under juvenile criminal law in both states a child is not given the right to a trial by jury (Neubauer, 452). Instead a juvenile must present their case before one judge who will then decide their fate. In cases of serious offenses such as rape and murder, the matter may be referred to the district or county attorneys office, after which the juvenile may be charged as an adult, tried in the criminal courts, and even sentenced to an adult correctional facility. In the New Jersey and California Juvenile Justice Systems, a minor has the same constitutional rights as an adult (Neubauer, 454). A minor is entitled to have their Miranda rights read to them as would an adult. Furthermore, a minor may invoke their Miranda rights and not make any statement unless they have an attorney present. Also, although a minor may request to have their parentsShow MoreRelatedJuvenile And Juvenile Justice System752 Words   |  4 PagesThe juvenile justice system and criminal justice system also known as the adult justice system is two different systems. The juvenile justice system is children who are under the age of 18 years old. After the age of 18, it is considered to be an adult it will enter through the adult justice system. There ate states that allows youth to stay in the juvenile justice system from age 18 until 21. The main differences between the juvenile justice system and criminal justice system is rehabilitation andRead MoreThe Juvenile Justice System And Juveniles1663 Words   |  7 Pagescriminal just ice system and juveniles, there have been many landmark cases that have made a significant impact on the juvenile justice system. The cases arise from dealing with certain aspects that comes from handling juveniles entering the system. 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Over the course of our semester we have come across various research studies that proves that the adult system is not well equipped to house and rehabilitate the delinquents. These studies have shown that more juveniles that are transferred to the criminal justice system ends up back in the system, which means the recidivism rateRead MoreThe On The Juvenile Justice System Essay1236 Words   |  5 Pages I would request that Senator Perkins vote against the proposed amendments to the Juvenile Act. Part A Although public safety is both a legitimate and justifiable concern, the proposed changes to the purposes clause would go against the primary purpose of the juvenile justice system, rehabilitation and treatment as opposed to punishment. During the 19th century, the American legal system tended to treat juveniles who violated the criminal law much as it did adult offenders. Consequently, if courtsRead MoreJuvenile Justice And The Juvenile System4789 Words   |  20 PagesJuvenile Justice Consultant When thinking of reforming the juvenile justice system one has to think; what can we do to make this better for everyone involve? There are some programs that can be implemented when trying to make a change in the juvenile system. The main thing is getting parents or the guardian more involved in the child’s whereabouts. Secondly the community where the youth will have a place to go and have something more constructive to do to keep them out of trouble. Law enforcementRead MoreJuvenile Justice System856 Words   |  4 Pagesthe juveniles. A juvenile is someone who is at or below the upper age of the original jurisdiction in their resident state (Juvenile Justice, 2013). Juveniles due to age are not treated at the same level as adults; due to this we have Juvenile Justice. Juvenile justice was said to be considered all the way back to the early years from the English brought over to American culture from England (Juvenile Justice, 2013). Since then in America we have ha d 5 major periods in the Juvenile Justice system